Predators and Prey
*Colour: Light Grey with black spots and a white belly
*Location: South Canda, USA & Mexico
*Prey: medium to large rabbits/hares, rodents, bats, and birds.
*They are eaten by mountain lions, coyotes, and wolves
It lives here in the western USA
Surprisingly it doesn’t suck blood even though its appearance looks like it does. It eats insects.
Females have a litter of about two bats once a summer
It is found in forests in Europe, Canada, USA, Asia, Australia, and North Africa
rabbits, squirrel, crickets, grasshoppers, and other insects.
The orangish fur is what defines the Red fox
Diet: birds, mammals, fruit, nuts, and carrion
eaten by: owls and other birds of prey
Length: between 13-25 cm as an adult
Big horned sheep
Diet: holly, grass, bark, clover, and leaves
colour: brown with white belly
Weight: about 300 lbs
It eats twigs, leaves, green plants, cabbage, and bark.
It has spines on its back much like the regular hedgehog.
The porcupine makes a small den in the winter to survive the harsh cold.
The elevation of the montane forests life zone is from about 8,000 to 10,000 ft above sea level. You can tell that you are getting higher in the mountains by the cooler temperatures, the dense mountain forests, and by the increased precipitation throughout the year.
One of the best ways to know if you are in the montane is to look at the plants and trees around you. The oak brush starts thinning out in the upper part of the montane shrublands, and large forests of pine trees and aspen trees start taking over. Often hidden in the forests are small grassy meadows and ponds. Enough rain and snow falls here to support large forests. Though, the plants here must be able to survive through cold temperatures and large snow drifts.
Montane ecology is the branch of ecology that studies life systems on mountains or other high elevation regions on the Earth. The ecosystems on mountains are strongly affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases.
Mammals in the montane have adapted to the seasons in different ways. Many animals migrate down to lower elevations in the winter (mule deer & elk). Others grow thick, warm fur (canada lynx). Some even change colors from white in the winter to brown in the summer to blend in (snowshoe hare).
Plants and Trees's Adaptations
Ponderosa Pine Adaptations
The Ponderosa Pine can live in the dry parts of Northwest Colorado. To get water the pine seedling develops a taproot. This is a large tapering root that connects multiple roots together. The pine roots go six feet down. These huge pine trees can absorb 400 gallons a DAY! A Ponderosa can withstand extremely high soil temperature but can be easily killed in heavy snowfall.
Rocky Mountain Juniper Adaptations
*Soil with limestone origin.
*They can live and thrive off 6 in. to 10 in. a year.
*It lives 200+ years because it is so well adapted
*Leaves will turn green whenever moist.
Leaves will turn rusty brown whenever not moist.
Pine Tree Adaptations
*Pine Trees thrive in challenging environments.
*Retaining needles for three years, as conifers do, extends the photosynthesis period and also increases water demand and water loss
*Pines and conifers have a needle structures that is assembled tightly so the vascular tissue is protected and water loss is reduced.
*Pine needles mature in a group or bundles
The Lodgepole Pine Adaptations
*The Lodgepole Pine is one of the most adaptable plants ever and can grow in all sorts of environments.
*Lodgepole Pine is one of the first trees to invade a forest after a wildfire.
*Lodgepole Pines can occur as the only tree in dense very slow growing groups of trees.
Rocky Mountain Maple Adaptations
Moist but well-drained seepage sites, mostly in rocky areas, along streambanks, moist slopes, canyons, and ravines, sometimes dry ridges, at low to middle elevations and moist sites in high mountains, 900- 3300 meters. Rocky Mountain maple is a long-lived, shade-tolerant seral species that often persists in the understory of late seral or climax coniferous stands, usually of Douglas fir, grand fir, subalpine fir, white fir, or Engelmann spruce. Because of its sprouting ability, it often gains dominance in seral shrub communities after conifer over stories are eliminated or reduced by wildfire or logging.
Aspen Tree’s Adaptations
Aspen trees are amazing trees. Did you know that a grove or forest of Aspen trees is one of the largest living organisms?Aspen trees can make more trees with their seeds and their roots. Aspen trees have white bark and the native Americans used the bark for the white powder on the bark as sunscreen. When an Aspen tree dies, its branches slowly fall off over time and the trees still look like it is alive. So the next time you see a Aspen tree, it most likely will be dead.
Northern Goshawk- habitat= lives in a high tree and makes it's own nest but wants to be hidden.
Cooper’s Hawk- habitat= Lives in a nest in very high trees and likes nest to be hidden.
Great Horned Owl-habitat= Use abandoned magpie, eagle, hawk or heron nests in sturdy tree tops.
Common Raven-habitat= They live in a nest built in tall trees and cliffs or other tall structures.
Hairy Woodpecker - habitat = Drills hole into a tree and lives in the hole with a nest it built.
Flammulated Owl - habitat = Lives in an abandoned nest built from a woodpecker and then lives inside of the tree.
Northern Goshawk- adaptations= They hunt during the day and dive into trees and branches and can fly up to 40 miles per hour.
Cooper’s Hawk -adaptations= It has a hooked beak so it can tear the bird prey apart.
Great Horned Owl -adaptations= Has great hearing and great eyesight at night and can hear and see his prey at night.
Common Raven -adaptations= It has great intelligence and it can memorize thing fast, observing, vocalizing, and understanding complex information.
Hairy Woodpecker -adaptations= It has a really sharp beak which helps it peck its way into trees so it can have a home.
Flammulated Owl -adaptations= It has the feather colors of tree bark which helps it by hiding from predators.
Northern Goshawk -Diet = They’re a predator because their diet consists of mice, shrews, chipmunks, jackrabbits, squirrels, grouse, raccoons, foxes, hares, geese, doves, woodpeckers, and crows.
Cooper’s Hawk -Diet = They’re a predator because their diet consists of medium-sized birds, including doves, quail, and woodpeckers.
Great Horned Owl -Diet = They’re a predator because their diet consists of rodents, skunks,moles, squirrels, porcupines, opossums, marmots, herons, loons, swans, ducks, gulls, passerines, Red-tailed Hawks, Aplomado Falcons and even other owls, young alligators, frogs, toads, salamanders, snakes, centipedes, catfish, eels, worms, scorpions, crayfish
Common Raven -Diet = They’re a predator because their Diet consists of carrion, maggots, carrion beetles but they are mostly scavengers.
Hairy Woodpecker -Diet = They’re a predator because their diet consists of beetles, wasps, also berries and sunflower seeds.
Flammulated Owl -Diet= They’re a predator because their diet consists of spiders,small rodents and birds.